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sera guide - Marine aquariums

26 3.4.2 Mechanical water purification Large and solid dirt particles (such as uneat- en food or algae particles) are collected in the mechanical filtration step as to prevent them from clogging biological filter media. In the sera marin Biotop Cube 130, filter sponges retain these coarse particles. This considerably increases the biological efficacy of the filter. These filter media must be washed out reg- ularly as to avoid water pollution by waste products and ensure a high water flow rate. Useful bacteria clean the marine water by bi- ological waste product breakdown. This in- cludes non-skimmable substances such as ammonium, ammonia and nitrite. This purifi- cation process takes place in special filter media. Depending on the filter, there is a sep- arate filter chamber as in case of the sera marin Biotop Cube 130. Two components are crucial for the biological purification quality: 1. The filter medium 2. The purification bacteria Filter media ensure optimal working conditions The sera siporax filter medium has a unique surface structure. sera siporax provides ide- al conditions for the different bacteria species in sera marin bio reefclear. The bacteria can optimally attach to the large, coarse surface. They are sufficiently supplied with oxygen and convert ammonium into ni- trite in an aerobic process. The extremely large amount of open-pored tunnel structures in sera siporax allows for ideal supply of anaerobic bacteria with nutri- ents and smallest amounts of fresh water. The bacteria are forced to break up nitrate as to get enough oxygen. This allows to also re- duce nitrate continuously. Due to the large internal diameter of the tubes, the waste products are quickly transported away with- out continuously washing away the bacteria. Filter media for bacterial settling should be tube shaped. This allows the water flowing off at the inside of the tubes. No clogging will occur, which would affect the filtration process. 3.4.3 Biological water purification Important: !! The surface of one liter (one US quart) of sera siporax has almost as much biological breakdown power as 34 liters (9 US gal.) of ceramic filter material